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Anatomy Reference Book:

  1. Kelikian, Armen S., Shahan K. Sarrafian, and Shahan K. Sarrafian. 2011. Sarrafian's anatomy of the foot and ankle: descriptive, topographical, functional. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Anatomy Reference Online Resource Links:

  1. Instant Anatomy Lower Leg:
  2. Instant Anatomy Ankle:
  3. Instant Anatomy Foot:
  4. UpToDate Muscle Compartments of the Leg:
  5. UpToDate Muscle Compartments of the foot:
  6. MRI Web Clinic — August 2012 Baxter’s Nerve (First Branch of the Lateral Plantar Nerve) Impingement
    Leon R. Toye, M.D.
  7. MRI Web Clinic — December 2009 Lesser Metatarsophalangeal Joint Instability
    Leland Y. Tsao, M.D.
  8. MRI Web Clinic — January 2013 Deltoid Ligament Injuries
    Michael E. Stadnick, M.D.
  9. Foot and Ankle Surgery Regional Anesthesia by Chris Nixon

Anatomy Reference Original Papers & Reviews:

  1. Acevedo JI, Ortiz C, Golano P, Nery C. ArthroBroström Lateral Ankle Stabilization Technique: An Anatomic Study. Am J Sports Med. 2015 Oct;43(10):2564-71.
  2. Alvarez R, Haddad RJ, Gould N, Trevino S. The simple bunion: anatomy at the metatarsophalangeal joint of the great toe. Foot Ankle. 1984 Mar-Apr;4(5):229-40.
  3. Amaha K, Nimura A, Yamaguchi R, Kampan N, Tasaki A, Yamaguchi K, Kato R, Akita K. Anatomic study of the medial side of the ankle base on the joint capsule: an alternative description of the deltoid and spring ligament. J Exp Orthop. 2019 Jan 28;6(1):2.
  4. Amlang M, Rosenow MC, Friedrich A, Zwipp H, Rammelt S. Direct plantar approach to Henry's knot for flexor hallucis longus transfer. Foot Ankle Int. 2012 Jan;33(1):7-13.
  5. Assal M, Dalmau-Pastor M, Ray A, Stern R. How to Get to the Distal Posterior Tibial Malleolus? A Cadaveric Anatomic Study Defining the Access Corridors Through 3 Different Approaches. J Orthop Trauma. 2017 Apr;31(4):e127-e129.
  6. Attinger CE, Evans KK, Bulan E, Blume P, Cooper P. Angiosomes of the foot and ankle and clinical implications for limb salvage: reconstruction, incisions, and revascularization. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006 Jun;117(7 Suppl):261S-293S.
  7. Bartoníček J, Rammelt S, Naňka O. Anatomy of the Subtalar Joint. Foot Ankle Clin. 2018 Sep;23(3):315-340. doi: 10.1016/j.fcl.2018.04.001. Epub 2018 Jul 4.
  8. Beger O, Elvan Ö, Keskinbora M, Ün B, Uzmansel D, Kurtoğlu Z. Anatomy of Master Knot of Henry: A morphometric study on cadavers. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc. 2018 Mar;52(2):134-142.
  9. Biz C, Zamperetti M, Gasparella A, Dalmau-Pastor M, Corradin M, de Guttry G, Ruggieri P. Early radiographic and clinical outcomes of minimally displaced proximal fifth metatarsal fractures: cast vs functional bandage. Muscles Ligaments Tendons J. 2018 Jan
  10. Borrelli J Jr, Lashgari C. Vascularity of the lateral calcaneal flap: a cadaveric injection study. J Orthop Trauma. 1999 Feb;13(2):73-7.
  11. Bowyer, M.W. Lower Extremity Fasciotomy: Indications and Technique. Curr Trauma Rep 1, 35–44 (2015).
  12. Cain JD, Dalmau-Pastor M. Anatomy of the Deltoid-Spring Ligament Complex. Foot Ankle Clin. 2021 Jun;26(2):237-247.
  13. Campbell KJ, Michalski MP, Wilson KJ, Goldsmith MT, Wijdicks CA, LaPrade RF, Clanton TO. The ligament anatomy of the deltoid complex of the ankle: a qualitative and quantitative anatomical study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014 Apr 16;96(8):e62.
  14. Chen TM, Rozen WM, Pan WR, Ashton MW, Richardson MD, Taylor GI. The arterial anatomy of the Achilles tendon: anatomical study and clinical implications. Clin Anat. 2009 Apr;22(3):377-85.
  15. Chepte, Arun & MV, Ambiye. (2018). Study of Branching Pattern of Dorsalis Pedis Artery and its Clinical Significance. Anatomy & Physiology. 08. 301.
  16. Clanton TO, Campbell KJ, Wilson KJ, Michalski MP, Goldsmith MT, Wijdicks CA, LaPrade RF. Qualitative and Quantitative Anatomic Investigation of the Lateral Ankle Ligaments for Surgical Reconstruction Procedures. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014 Jun 18;96(12):e98.
  17. Dalmau-Pastor M, Fargues B, Alcolea E, Martínez-Franco N, Ruiz-Escobar P, Vega J, Golanó P. Extensor apparatus of the lesser toes: anatomy with clinical implications--topical review. Foot Ankle Int. 2014 Oct;35(10):957-69.
  18. Dalmau-Pastor M, Fargues-Polo B Jr, Casanova-Martínez D Jr, Vega J, Golanó P. Anatomy of the triceps surae: a pictorial essay. Foot Ankle Clin. 2014 Dec;19(4):603-35.
  19. Dalmau-Pastor M, Malagelada F, Cordier G, Del Vecchio JJ, Ghioldi ME, Vega J. Anatomical Study of Minimally Invasive Lateral Release Techniques for Hallux Valgus Treatment. Foot Ankle Int. 2020 Aug;41(8):984-992
  20. De Leeuw PAJ, Vega J, Karlsson J, Dalmau-Pastor M. The posterior fibulotalocalcaneal ligament complex: a forgotten ligament. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2021 May;29(5):1627-1634. doi: 10.1007/s00167-020-06431-5. Epub 2021 Jan 24.
  21. Eastwood DM, Irgau I, Atkins RM. The distal course of the sural nerve and its significance for incisions around the lateral hindfoot. Foot Ankle. 1992 May;13(4):199-202.
  22. Edama M, Kubo M, Onishi H, Takabayashi T, Inai T, Yokoyama E, Hiroshi W, Satoshi N, Kageyama I. The twisted structure of the human Achilles tendon. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2015 Oct;25(5):e497-503.
  23. Femino JE, Gruber BF, Karunakar MA. Safe zone for the placement of medial malleolar screws. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007 Jan;89(1):133-8.
  24. Fernández-Gibello A, Moroni S, Camuñas G, Montes R, Zwierzina M, Tasch C, Starke V, Sañudo J, Vazquez T, Konschake M. Ultrasound-guided decompression surgery of the tarsal tunnel: a novel technique for the proximal tarsal tunnel syndrome-Part II. Surg Radiol Anat. 2019 Jan;41(1):43-51.
  25. Filippi J, Briceno J. Complications after Metatarsal Osteotomies for Hallux Valgus: Malunion, Nonunion, Avascular Necrosis, and Metatarsophalangeal Osteoarthritis. Foot Ankle Clin. 2020 Mar;25(1):169-182.
  26. Flores Santos F, Santos NR. Arthroscopic treatment of lateral ankle instability. Is there a safe zone? An anatomic study. Foot Ankle Surg. 2020 Jan;26(1):61-65.
  27. Fraser JJ, Feger MA, Hertel J. MIDFOOT AND FOREFOOT INVOLVEMENT IN LATERAL ANKLE SPRAINS AND CHRONIC ANKLE INSTABILITY. PART 1: ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2016 Dec;11(6):992-1005.
  28. Garcia-Pumarino R, Moraleda E, Aburto A, Barros JA, Garro L, Salvador JF, Sanchez F. Vascular anatomy of the dorsum of the foot. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010 Dec;126(6):2012-2018.
  29. Golano P, Fariñas O, Sáenz I. The anatomy of the navicular and periarticular structures. Foot Ankle Clin. 2004 Mar;9(1):1-23.
  30. Golanó P, Vega J, de Leeuw PA, Malagelada F, Manzanares MC, Götzens V, van Dijk CN. Anatomy of the ankle ligaments: a pictorial essay. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2010 May;18(5):557-69.
  31. Golanó P, Vega J, Pérez-Carro L, Götzens V. Ankle anatomy for the arthroscopist. Part I: The portals. Foot Ankle Clin. 2006 Jun;11(2):253-73, v.
  32. Golanó P, Vega J, Pérez-Carro L, Götzens V. Ankle anatomy for the arthroscopist. Part II: Role of the ankle ligaments in soft tissue impingement. Foot Ankle Clin. 2006 Jun;11(2):275-96, v-vi.
  33. Greene DL, Thompson MC, Gesink DS, Graves SC. Anatomic study of the medial neurovascular structures in relation to calcaneal osteotomy. Foot Ankle Int. 2001 Jul;22(7):569-71.
  34. Halai MM, Pinsker E, Daniels TR. Effect of Novel Anteromedial Approach on Wound Complications Following Ankle Arthroplasty. Foot Ankle Int. 2020 Oct;41(10):1198-1205.
  35. Haskell A, Dedini R, Dini M. Safe zone for placement of talar screws when fusing the ankle with an anterior plating system. Foot Ankle Int. 2015 Jun;36(6):730-5.
  36. Havel PE, Ebraheim NA, Clark SE, Jackson WT, DiDio L. Tibial nerve branching in the tarsal tunnel. Foot Ankle. 1988 Dec;9(3):117-9.
  37. Herford AS, King BJ, Audia F, Becktor J. Medial approach for tibial bone graft: anatomic study and clinical technique. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003 Mar;61(3):358-63.
  38. Hernigou J, Alves A, Homma Y, Guissou I, Hernigou P. Anatomy of the ilium for bone marrow aspiration: map of sectors and implication for safe trocar placement. Int Orthop. 2014 Dec;38(12):2585-90.
  39. Hernigou J, Picard L, Alves A, Silvera J, Homma Y, Hernigou P. Understanding bone safety zones during bone marrow aspiration from the iliac crest: the sector rule. Int Orthop. 2014 Nov;38(11):2377-84.
  40. Herzenberg JE, Lamm BM, Corwin C, Sekel J. Isolated recession of the gastrocnemius muscle: the Baumann procedure. Foot Ankle Int. 2007 Nov;28(11):1154-9.
  41. Hintermann, Beat & Golano, Pau. (2014). The Anatomy and Function of the Deltoid Ligament. Techniques in Foot & Ankle Surgery. 13. 10.1097/BTF
  42. Jaffe D, Vier D, Kane J, Kozanek M, Royer C. Rate of Neurologic Injury Following Lateralizing Calcaneal Osteotomy Performed Through a Medial Approach. Foot Ankle Int. 2017 Dec;38(12):1367-1373.
  43. Jarusriwanna A, Chuckpaiwong B. Appropriate Area for Operative Procedures Near Tibialis Anterior Tendon Insertion: A Cadaveric Study. Foot Ankle Int. 2018 Mar;39(3):349-354.
  44. Jayatilaka MLT, Philpott MDG, Fisher A, Fisher L, Molloy A, Mason L. Anatomy of the Insertion of the Posterior Inferior Tibiofibular Ligament and the Posterior Malleolar Fracture. Foot Ankle Int. 2019 Nov;40(11):1319-1324.
  45. Jotoku T, Kinoshita M, Okuda R, Abe M. Anatomy of ligamentous structures in the tarsal sinus and canal. Foot Ankle Int. 2006 Jul;27(7):533-8.
  46. Kim DI, Kim YS, Han SH. Topography of human ankle joint: focused on posterior tibial artery and tibial nerve. Anat Cell Biol. 2015 Jun;48(2):130-7.
  47. Kwon JY, Ellington JK, Marsland D, Gupta S. Calcaneal traction pin placement simplified: a cadaveric study. Foot Ankle Int. 2011 Jun;32(6):651-5.
  48. Lamm BM, Paley D, Testani M, Herzenberg JE. Tarsal tunnel decompression in leg lengthening and deformity correction of the foot and ankle. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2007 May-Jun;46(3):201-6.
  49. Lee SH, Shin KJ, Gil YC, Ha TJ, Koh KS, Song WC. Anatomy of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve relevant to clinical findings in meralgia paresthetica. Muscle Nerve. 2017 May;55(5):646-650.
  50. Ling ZX, Kumar VP. The myofascial compartments of the foot: a cadaver study. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2008 Aug;90(8):1114-8.
  51. Maeda S, Niki H, Hirano T, Akiyama Y. Safe Zone for the Plantar Portal: A Cadaveric Study. Foot Ankle Int. 2016 Feb;37(2):210-7.
  52. Malagelada F, Dalmau-Pastor M, Fargues B, Manzanares-Céspedes MC, Peña F, Vega J. Increasing the safety of minimally invasive hallux surgery-An anatomical study introducing the clock method. Foot Ankle Surg. 2018 Feb;24(1):40-44.
  53. Malal JJ, Shaw-Dunn J, Kumar CS. Blood supply to the first metatarsal head and vessels at risk with a chevron osteotomy. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007 Sep;89(9):2018-22.
  54. Manske MC, McKeon KE, Johnson JE, McCormick JJ, Klein SE. Arterial anatomy of the tibialis posterior tendon. Foot Ankle Int. 2015 Apr;36(4):436-43.
  55. Mao H, Dong W, Shi Z, Yin W, Xu D, Wapner KL. Anatomical Study of the Neurovascular in Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Transfers. Sci Rep. 2017 Oct 27;7(1):14202.
  56. Marsland D, Dray A, Little NJ, Solan MC. The saphenous nerve in foot and ankle surgery: its variable anatomy and relevance. Foot Ankle Surg. 2013 Jun;19(2):76-9.
  57. Mason L, Jayatilaka MLT, Fisher A, Fisher L, Swanton E, Molloy A. Anatomy of the Lateral Plantar Ligaments of the Transverse Metatarsal Arch. Foot Ankle Int. 2020 Jan;41(1):109-114.
  58. McCrory P, Bell S, Bradshaw C. Nerve entrapments of the lower leg, ankle and foot in sport. Sports Med. 2002;32(6):371-91.
  59. Mereau T, Beck D, Seligson D. Surgical tip: calcaneal pin placement: anatomic considerations. Foot Ankle Int. 2005 Mar;26(3):270-1.
  60. Meulenkamp, Brad MDa,b,d,; Louati, Hakim MSca,c; Morellato, John MBBSa,b; Papp, Steve MD, MSca,b,d; Lalonde, Karl Andre MD, MEda,b,d Posterior malleolus exposure, OTA International: June 2019 - Volume 2 - Issue 2 - p e021
  61. Miller RA, Hartman G. Origin and course of the dorsomedial cutaneous nerve to the great toe. Foot Ankle Int. 1996 Oct;17(10):620-2.
  62. Mischkowski RA, Selbach I, Neugebauer J, Koebke J, Zöller JE. Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve and iliac crest bone grafts--anatomical and clinical considerations. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006 Apr;35(4):366-72.
  63. Moroni S, Gibello AF, Zwierzina M, Nieves GC, Montes R, Sañudo J, Vazquez T, Konschake M. Ultrasound-guided decompression surgery of the distal tarsal tunnel: a novel technique for the distal tarsal tunnel syndrome-part III. Surg Radiol Anat. 2019 Mar;41(3):313-321.
  64. Moroni S, Zwierzina M, Starke V, Moriggl B, Montesi F, Konschake M. Clinical-anatomic mapping of the tarsal tunnel with regard to Baxter's neuropathy in recalcitrant heel pain syndrome: part I. Surg Radiol Anat. 2019 Jan;41(1):29-41.
  65. Mota Gomes T, Guerra-Pinto F, Soares S, Andrade R, Pereira B, Espregueira-Mendes J, Oliva XM. The vascularization of the peroneal tendons: An anatomic study. Foot Ankle Surg. 2021 Jun;27(4):450-456.
  66. Murata Y, Takahashi K, Yamagata M, Sameda H, Moriya H. Injury to the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve during harvest of iliac bone graft, with reference to the size of the graft. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2002 Aug;84(6):798-801.
  67. Nery C, Umans H, Baumfeld D. Etiology, Clinical Assessment, and Surgical Repair of Plantar Plate Tears. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2016 Apr;20(2):205-13.
  68. Nha KW, Lee SH, Rhyu IJ, Kim HJ, Song JG, Han JH, Yeo ED, Lee YK. Safe Zone for Medial Open-Wedge Supramalleolar Osteotomy of the Ankle: A Cadaveric Study. Foot Ankle Int. 2016 Jan;37(1):102-8.
  69. Olewnik Ł, Podgórski M, Polguj M, Ruzik K, Topol M. A cadaveric study of the morphology of the extensor hallucis longus - a proposal for a new classification. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2019 Jul 3;20(1):310.
  70. Olewnik Ł, Podgórski M, Polguj M, Topol M. A cadaveric and sonographic study of the morphology of the tibialis anterior tendon - a proposal for a new classification. J Foot Ankle Res. 2019 Feb 1;12:9.
  71. Panchani PN, Chappell TM, Moore GD, Tubbs RS, Shoja MM, Loukas M, Kozlowski PB, Khan KH, DiLandro AC, D'Antoni AV. Anatomic study of the deltoid ligament of the ankle. Foot Ankle Int. 2014 Sep;35(9):916-21.
  72. Panchbhavi VK, Molina D 4th, Villarreal J, Curry MC, Andersen CR. Three-dimensional, digital, and gross anatomy of the Lisfranc ligament. Foot Ankle Int. 2013 Jun;34(6):876-80.
  73. Panchbhavi VK, Yang J, Vallurupalli S. Minimally invasive method of harvesting the flexor digitorum longus tendon: a cadaver study. Foot Ankle Int. 2008 Jan;29(1):42-8.
  74. Philpott A, Lawford C, Lau SC, Chambers S, Bozin M, Oppy A. Modified Dorsal Approach in the Management of Lisfranc Injuries. Foot Ankle Int. 2018 May;39(5):573-584.
  75. Phisitkul P, Sripongsai R, Chaichankul C, Femino JE. Anatomy of the plantarmedial hallucal nerve in relation to the medial approach of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Foot Ankle Int. 2009 Jun;30(6):558-61.
  76. Phisitkul P, Sullivan JP, Goetz JE, Marsh JL. Maximizing safety in screw placement for posterior facet fixation in calcaneus fractures: a cadaveric radio-anatomical study. Foot Ankle Int. 2013 Sep;34(9):1279-85.
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  79. Shereff MJ, Yang QM, Kummer FJ, Frey CC, Greenidge N. Vascular anatomy of the fifth metatarsal. Foot Ankle. 1991 Jun;11(6):350-3.
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  81. Spang C, Alfredson H, Docking SI, Masci L, Andersson G. The plantaris tendon: a narrative review focusing on anatomical features and clinical importance. Bone Joint J. 2016 Oct;98-B(10):1312-1319.
  82. Talusan PG, Cata E, Tan EW, Parks BG, Guyton GP. Safe Zone for Neural Structures in Medial Displacement Calcaneal Osteotomy: A Cadaveric and Radiographic Investigation. Foot Ankle Int. 2015 Dec;36(12):1493-8.
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  84. Teoh KH, Haanaes EK, Alshalawi S, Tanaka H, Hariharan K. Minimally Invasive Dorsal Cheilectomy of the First Metatarsal: A Cadaveric Study. Foot Ankle Int. 2018 Dec;39(12):1497-1501.
  85. Tomaszewski KA, Popieluszko P, Henry BM, Roy J, Sanna B, Kijek MR, Walocha JA. The surgical anatomy of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve in the inguinal region: a meta-analysis. Hernia. 2016 Oct;20(5):649-57.
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  88. Vega J, Malagelada F, Manzanares Céspedes MC, Dalmau-Pastor M. The lateral fibulotalocalcaneal ligament complex: an ankle stabilizing isometric structure. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2020 Jan;28(1):8-17.
  89. Vives MJ, Abidi NA, Ishikawa SN, Taliwal RV, Sharkey PF. Soft tissue injuries with the use of safe corridors for transfixion wire placement during external fixation of distal tibia fractures: an anatomic study. J Orthop Trauma. 2001 Nov;15(8):555-9.
  90. Wan-Ae-Loh P, Danginthawat P, Huanmanop T, Agthong S, Chentanez V. Surface localisation of master knot of Henry, in situ and ex vivo length of flexor hallucis longus tendon: pertinent data for tendon harvesting and transfer. Folia Morphol (Warsz). 2021;80(2):415-424.
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  92. Willegger, M., Seyidova, N., Schuh, R., Windhager, R., & Hirtler, L. (2017). Anatomical Footprint of the Tibialis Anterior Tendon: Surgical Implications for Foot and Ankle Reconstructions. BioMed Research International, 2017.
  93. Williams C, Momenzadeh K, Michalski M, Kwon JY, Nazarian A, Miller CP. Anatomic and Radiographic Safe Zone for Posterior Malleolar Screw Placement. Foot Ankle Int. 2021 Jul 1:10711007211022747.
  94. Yamaguchi R, Nimura A, Amaha K, Yamaguchi K, Segawa Y, Okawa A, Akita K. Anatomy of the Tarsal Canal and Sinus in Relation to the Subtalar Joint Capsule. Foot Ankle Int. 2018 Nov;39(11):1360-1369.