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  • Lisfranc (Midfoot) Injury

    The tarsometatarsal joint or Lisfranc joint is the region in the middle of the foot formed by the articulation of the tarsal bones (a cluster of seven bones) and metatarsal bones (a group of five long bones).

  • Cavus Foot Deformity

    Cavus foot also referred to as a high arch, is a condition in which the arch on the bottom of the foot that runs from the toes to the heel is arched more than normal. Because of this, excessive weight falls on the ball and heel of the foot when walking or standing, causing pain and instability.

  • Foot and Ankle Rehabilitation

    The foot is composed of different structures including bones, ligaments, tendons, and muscles. As the feet bear the weight of our body, they are more prone to injury and pain. A foot injury or foot surgery may leave you immobile for a period of time.

  • Ganglion and Soft Tissue Tumors

    Soft tissue tumors are lumps beneath the skin of your foot and ankle that occur due to the overgrowth of tissue (fat cells) within or between the muscles, tendons, nerves or blood vessels.

  • Internal and External Fixation of Foot and Ankle Fractures

    Foot and ankle fractures are breaks or cracks in any bone of your foot and ankle joint. Fixation of fractures is a surgical method of reconnecting the broken or cracked bones and fixing them in the correct place using orthopedic hardware.

  • Minimally Invasive Bunion Surgery

    Minimally invasive bunion surgery, also known as keyhole bunion surgery, is a procedure to treat a foot condition called a bunion or hallux valgus. During minimally invasive bunion surgery, a few small incisions are made to access the bone around the bunion.

  • Brostrom Repair

    Brostrom repair is a surgical procedure that involves the repair and reconstruction of injured ligaments on the outside of the ankle to treat ankle instability. The two ligaments of the ankle that are commonly injured are the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) and the calcaneofibular ligament (CFL).

  • Midfoot Arthritis

    Midfoot arthritis is pain and inflammation of the midfoot. It occurs due to damage of cartilage or tissues around the joints. The damage may occur due to injury, aging or autoimmunity. The foot bones are the phalanges, the metaphalanges, and the tarsal bones.

  • Foot and Ankle Examination

    Examination of the foot and ankle is necessary for an accurate diagnosis of injury or disorder. Pain: Your doctor examines the spot or area on your foot where you feel pain. The pain may be dull or sharp.

  • Foot Injections

    Foot injections are steroids that are injected into your foot to relieve pain and inflammation. Cortisol is a hormone that is produced in the human body and functions to reduce stress and inflammation.

  • Achillles Tendinitis

    Achilles tendinitis is the inflammation and irritation to the Achilles tendon, a strong fibrous cord present behind the ankle that connects your calf muscles to the heel bone.

  • Hallux Rigiditis

    Hallux Rigiditis is a form of degenerative arthritis at the metatarsophalangeal or MTP joint where the base of your big toe attaches to the foot. Arthritis is the inflammation of joints as a result of degeneration of the smooth cartilage that lines the ends of bones in a joint.

  • Lesser Toe Deformities

    Lesser toe deformity is an abnormality in the anatomy of your toe that occurs as a result of imbalance between the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. Lesser toes in your foot are those other than the big toes and together stabilize your foot while standing and help in balancing the body.

  • Anatomy of the Foot and Ankle

    The foot and ankle form complex joints that are involved in movement and providing stability and balance to the body. The foot and ankle consist of 26 bones, 33 joints, and many muscles, tendons, and ligaments.

  • Ankle Sprain

    A sprain is the stretching or tearing of ligaments. Ligaments connect adjacent bones and provide stability to a joint. An ankle sprain is a common injury that occurs when you suddenly fall or twist the ankle joint, or when you land your foot in an awkward position after a jump.

  • Achilles Tendon Rupture

    The Achilles tendon is a strong fibrous cord present behind the ankle that connects the calf muscles to the heel bone. It is used when you walk, run and jump. The Achilles tendon ruptures most often in athletes participating in sports that involve running, pivoting and jumping.

  • Plantar Fasciitis

    Plantar fasciitis refers to the inflammation of the plantar fascia, a thick band of tissue that is present at the bottom of the foot. It runs from the heel bone to the toes and forms the arch of your foot.

  • Ankle Fractures

    Ankle injuries are very common in athletes and individuals performing physical work; often resulting in severe pain and impaired mobility. Pain after ankle injuries can either be from a torn ligament (ankle sprain) or broken bone (ankle fracture).

  • Ankle Instability

    The joints of the ankle are held in place and stabilized by strong bands of tissue called ligaments. Ankle instability is a chronic condition characterized by a recurrent slipping of the outer side of the ankle.

  • Heel Fractures

    The calcaneus or heel bone is a large bone found at the rear of the foot. A heel fracture is a break in the heel bone due to trauma or various disease conditions.

  • Talus Fractures

    The talus is a small bone at the ankle joint that connects the heel bone and the shinbones, enabling up and down movement of the foot.

  • Turf Toe

    Turf toe is an injury to the ligament at the base of the big toe. It is a painful condition that usually results from jamming the toe into the ground or excessive backward bending of the toe.

  • Foot Fracture

    Trauma and repeated stress can cause fractures in the foot. Extreme force is required to fracture the bones in the hindfoot. The most common type of foot fracture is a stress fracture that occurs when repeated activities produce small cracks in the bones.

  • Foot and Ankle Trauma

    Foot and ankle trauma refers to injuries that most commonly occur during sports, exercise or any other physical activity. Trauma may be a result of accidents, poor training practices or use of improper gear.

  • Ankle Ligament Injury

    An ankle ligament injury, also known as an ankle sprain, can be caused by a sudden twisting movement of the foot during any athletic event or during daily activities. When stretched beyond its limit, the ligament may partially or completely tear.

  • Foot and Ankle Arthritis

    Arthritis is the inflammation of joints as a result of degeneration of the smooth cartilage that lines the ends of bones in a joint. This degeneration of the cartilages leads to painful rubbing of the bones, swelling, and stiffness in the joints, resulting in restricted movements.

  • Bunion

    A bunion is a bony protuberance that appears on the outer surface of the big toe when it angles toward the adjacent toe. It is an extra bone and a fluid-filled sac that grows at the base of the big toe.

  • Forefoot Pain

    Forefoot pain, also referred to as metatarsalgia, is a type of pain that occurs in the ball of the foot (along the ends of the metatarsal bones). Generally, forefoot pain is associated with aging.

  • Morton's Neuroma

    Morton’s neuroma refers to a nerve injury that occurs between the toes, usually the third and fourth toes. This causes pain and thickening of the nerve tissue.

  • Foot Pain

    The foot is composed of bones, ligaments, tendons, and muscles. As your feet bear the weight of your entire body, they are more prone to injury and pain. Foot pain occurs from distress induced by certain factors on the foot.

  • Flatfoot

    Flatfoot, also known as “fallen arches” or Pes planus, is a deformity in children’s feet where the arch that runs along the sole of the foot collapses to the ground or is not formed at all.

  • Foot Infections

    Foot infections may occur after trauma to the foot or loss of tissue because of contamination from foreign material and/or bacteria or fungus. Infections can occur in healthy individuals as well as in those whose health is compromised.

  • Foot Drop

    Foot drop, also known as drop foot, is a sign of an underlying muscular, neurological or anatomical condition, where you are unable to lift the front part of your foot, which results in the dragging of the foot.

  • Hammertoe

    A hammertoe is a deformity of a lesser toe (second through fifth toes), where the toe is bent upward at the toe’s middle joint, resembling a hammer. The bent portion may rub against the shoe causing pain, irritation and develop corns.

  • Nerve Conditions of the Foot

    The foot is composed of bones, ligaments, nerves, muscles, and tendons. Nerve conditions of the foot can range from minor nerve injuries to serious conditions like nerve entrapment and damage.

  • Claw Toe

    Claw toe is a deformity where a toe bends and appears like a bird’s claw. The affected toe is bent upward from the joint at the ball of the foot, and downward at the joints in the middle and tip of the toe to curl under the foot.

  • Congenital Limb Deformities

    Limb deformities can be congenital (present at birth) or develop at a later stage because of a fracture, infection, arthritis or tumor. Congenital deformities of the lower limbs are developmental disorders that cause alterations in the shape and appearance of the legs.

  • Congenital Deformity and Clubfoot

    Congenital deformities of the lower limbs are developmental disorders that are present at birth, causing alterations in the shape and appearance of the legs. Several factors such as genetics, teratogenic drugs, and chemicals can cause congenital deformities.

  • Heel Pain

    Heel pain is a common symptom of excessive strain placed on the structures that form the heel. Heel pain can be caused by obesity, abnormal walking style, standing or walking or running on hard surfaces and wearing ill-fitting shoes.

  • Foot Rehabilitation Following Surgery

    You are encouraged to start walking with crutches or a walker following your surgery. Your doctor will help to structure and supervise an exercise routine that is ideal for you.

  • Foot Reconstruction

    Foot reconstruction is a surgery performed to correct the structures of the foot and restore the natural functionality of the foot that has been lost due to injury or illness.

  • Ankle Joint Replacement

    Ankle joint replacement, also known as total ankle arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure performed to relieve pain and immobility due to severe end-stage arthritis that has not responded to non-surgical treatments.

  • Subtalar Arthrodesis

    Subtalar arthrodesis is the surgical fusion of bones that form the subtalar joint. The goal of subtalar arthrodesis is to relieve pain in the affected joint. This is achieved by surgically eliminating the joint.

  • Ankle Arthroscopy

    Ankle arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure in which an arthroscope, a small, soft, flexible tube with a light and video camera at the end, is inserted into the ankle joint to evaluate and treat a variety of conditions.

  • Fifth Metatarsal Fractures

    The metatarsal bones are the long bones in your feet. There are five metatarsal bones in each foot. The fifth metatarsal is the long bone that is located on the outside of the foot and connects to the small toe.

  • Minimally Invasive Foot Surgery

    Minimally invasive foot surgery (MIFS) uses the latest advanced technology to treat foot and ankle pain caused by a variety of conditions. Special surgical instruments, devices, and advanced imaging techniques are used to visualize and perform the surgery through small incisions.

  • Treatment of Foot and Ankle Sports Injuries

    Injuries during sports are common. They can result from accidents, inadequate training, improper use of protective devices, or insufficient stretching or warm-up exercises.

  • Cavovarus Foot Correction

    To support the entire body’s weight on your two feet, the inner middle portion of each foot (midfoot) is raised off the ground to form an arch. A cavovarus foot deformity is characterized by a higher-than-normal arch of the inner midfoot.

  • Flatfoot Reconstruction

    Foot reconstruction is a surgery performed to correct the structures of the foot and restore the natural functionality of the foot that has been lost due to injury or illness.

  • Achilles Tendon Repair

    The surgery is usually performed as an outpatient procedure, under a nerve block and sedation. An incision is made at the back of your leg. Your surgeon will stitch the torn tendon back together with strong sutures.

  • Ankle Arthrodesis

    Ankle arthrodesis is the surgical fusion of bones that form the ankle joint. The ankle joint is formed by the tibia, talus, and the fibula bones. The goal of ankle arthrodesis is to relieve pain in the affected joint.

  • Metatarsal and Phalangeal (Forefoot) Fractures

    The forefoot is the anterior or front portion of the foot that functions in weight-bearing and maintaining balance while standing, walking or running. It is formed by 5 metatarsal bones, 14 phalange bones, and various soft tissues.

  • Ankle Ligament Reconstruction

    Ankle ligament reconstruction may be performed arthroscopically under general anesthesia. Your surgeon will make small incisions in your ankle. A tiny camera and a few special instruments are inserted through the incisions to repair and strengthen the ligaments.

  • Non-Surgical Treatment for Foot and Ankle Pain

    The foot is composed of different structures including bones, ligaments, tendons, and muscles. As the feet bear the weight of our body, they are more prone to injury and pain. Normally, foot pain can be treated with home treatments but may take time to heal.

  • Lesser Toe Surgery

    Lesser toe surgery is an operation to correct deformities of the lesser toes other than the big toe. Some of the common lesser toe deformities include hammer toe, claw toe, and mallet toe.

  • Ankle Instability Surgery

    Ankle instability surgery is performed to treat an unstable ankle and involves the repair or replacement of a torn or stretched ligament. Surgery is recommended when you have a high degree of ankle instability and have failed to respond to non-surgical treatments.

  • Sesamoid Fracture

    A sesamoid fracture is a break in the sesamoid bone. Sesamoids are two small, pea-shaped bones located in the ball beneath the big toe joint at the bottom of the foot. Sesamoid bones are connected to muscles and other bones by tendons that envelop these bones.

  • Diabetic Foot Conditions

    Diabetes is a chronic condition that is characterized by high blood glucose (sugar) levels. Diabetic patients are at high risk for developing chronic wounds, especially in the feet.

  • Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

    The posterior tibial tendon passes through the ankle to attach the calf muscle with the bones of the midfoot. It provides stability to the arch and supports the foot while walking.

  • Complex Foot and Ankle Surgeries

    Complex foot and ankle surgeries are procedures employed to treat foot and ankle structures with deformities, injuries, structural issues, and damage from diseases like diabetes or arthritis.

  • Bunionectomy

    A bunionectomy is a surgical procedure to remove a bunion. A bunion, also called a hallux valgus, is an enlargement of bone or soft tissues around the joint at the base of the big toe that results in the formation of a bump.

  • Stress Fractures of Foot and Ankle

    A stress fracture is described as a small crack in the bone which occurs from an overuse injury of a bone. It commonly develops in the weight-bearing bones of the lower leg and foot.

  • Shockwave Treatment for Plantar Fasciitis

    Shockwave treatment, also known as Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT), is a conservative procedure to treat plantar fasciitis of the foot, where shockwaves are passed through the heel to stimulate healing of the inflamed plantar fascia tissues.

  • Bunionette (Tailor's Bunion)

    Bunionette, also called Tailor’s bunion, is a bony lump formed along the outside of the little toe at the base. It occurs when the very bottom bone (fifth metatarsal bone) of the little toe enlarges or shifts outward.

  • Achilles Tendinitis

    Inflammation of the Achilles tendon is known as Achilles tendinitis or tendonitis. The Achilles tendon is a tough band of fibrous tissue that runs down the back of your lower leg and connects your calf muscle to your heel bone.

  • Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation System (OATS) of the Ankle

    OATS of the ankle is a surgical procedure to treat Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus (OCL) or Osteochondritis Dissecans (OCD). It involves the transfer of healthy cartilage to replace the damaged cartilage and restore the normal function of the foot.

  • Osteochondral Lesions of the Ankle

    The tibia and the fibula bones of the lower leg join with the talus bone to form the ankle joint. The talus bone is an important bone located between the tibia and fibula and the heel bone (calcaneus). OCL or OCD is the damage to the cartilage and the talus bone of the ankle joint.

  • Tendon Transfer

    In a tendon transfer procedure, a healthy tendon is transferred to replace the damaged tendon and restore the normal movement of the foot.

  • Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

    The tarsal tunnel is a narrow passageway that lies on the inside of your ankle and runs into the foot. It encloses arteries, veins, tendons and nerves that supply the foot.

  • Vertical Talus

    Talus is a small bone in your ankle joint. It sits between the heel bone (calcaneus) and the confluence of two bones of the lower leg (tibia and fibula). Talus connects the lower leg to the foot to form the ankle and helps transfer weight across the ankle joint.

  • Charcot Reconstruction

    Charcot foot and ankle is a condition characterized by gradual weakening of the bones, joints and soft tissues, and loss of sensation in the foot and ankle. It is caused by nerve damage (neuropathy) in the foot and ankle or due to diabetes.

  • Foot & Ankle Deformity Correction

    Foot and ankle deformity is the structural abnormality caused by misalignment of the bones of the foot and ankle. The deformity can be: Congenital (inherited and present from birth)